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Unlike typical assassinations his death was not swift; he first survived an explosion at the Presidential Villa, was then shot and wounded, and finally was butchered with machetes. His assassination was carried out by renegade soldiers who were apparently avenging the killing of General Tagme Na Waie , the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of Guinea Bissau, who had been killed in a bomb explosion the day before.

Nearly years later, in his book The Prince , Machiavelli also advises rulers to assassinate enemies whenever possible so they won't pose a threat. For similar and additional reasons, assassination has also sometimes been used in the conduct of foreign policy. The costs and benefits of such actions are difficult to compute, especially when they depend upon the policies of a successor, and one study has found that perceptual biases held by leaders often negatively affect decision making in this area, such that decisions made to go forward with assassinations often reflect the vague hope that any successor might be better.

In both military and foreign policy assassinations, there is the risk that the target could be replaced by an even more competent leader, or that such a killing or a failed attempt will " martyr " a leader and lead to greater support of his or her cause by showing the ruthlessness of the assassins. Faced with particularly brilliant leaders, this possibility has in various instances been risked, such as in the attempts to kill the Athenian Alcibiades during the Peloponnesian War.

A number of additional examples from World War II show how assassination was used as a tool:. Insurgent groups have often employed assassination as a tool to further their causes.

Assassinations provide several functions for such groups, namely the removal of specific enemies and as propaganda tools to focus the attention of media and politics on their cause. Michael Collins set up a special unit — the Squad — for this purpose, which had the effect of intimidating many policemen into resigning from the force.

The Squad's activities peaked with the killing of 14 British agents in Dublin on Bloody Sunday in Loyalist paramilitaries retaliated by killing Catholics at random and assassinating Irish nationalist politicians. Since the early s, they have also targeted academics, journalists and local politicians who publicly disagreed with them. The Red Brigades in Italy carried out assassinations of political figures, as to a lesser extent, did the Red Army Faction in Germany in the s and s. In the Vietnam War , Communist insurgents routinely assassinated government officials and individual civilians deemed to offend or rival the revolutionary movement.

Such attacks, along with widespread military activity by insurgent bands, almost brought the Diem regime to collapse before the U. A major study about assassination attempts in the U. Assassinations are thus rarely a case of 'impulsive' action. This shows that while mental instability plays a role in many modern-age assassinations, the more delusional attackers are less likely to succeed in their attempt. With the advent of effective ranged weaponry , and later firearms , the position of an assassination target was more precarious.

Bodyguards were no longer enough to hold back determined killers, who no longer needed to directly engage or even subvert the guard to kill the leader in question. Moreover, the engagement of targets at greater distance dramatically increased the chances of an assassin's survival. The first heads of government to be assassinated with a firearm were the Regent Moray of Scotland in , and William the Silent , the Prince of Orange of the Netherlands in Gunpowder and other explosives also allowed the use of bombs or even greater concentrations of explosives for deeds requiring a larger touch.

  1. The assassination that started World War I.
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Explosives, especially the car bomb , become far more common in modern history, with grenades and remote-triggered land mines also used, especially in the Middle East and Balkans the initial attempt on Archduke Franz Ferdinand 's life was with a grenade. With heavy weapons, the rocket-propelled grenade RPG has become a useful tool given the popularity of armored cars discussed below , while Israeli forces have pioneered the use of aircraft-mounted missiles, [37] as well as the innovative use of explosive devices.

A sniper with a precision rifle is often used in fictional assassinations. However, certain pragmatic difficulties attend long-range shooting, including finding a hidden shooting position with a clear line-of-sight, detailed advance knowledge of the intended victim's travel plans, the ability to identify the target at long range, and the ability to score a first-round lethal hit at long range, usually measured in hundreds of meters.

A dedicated sniper rifle is also expensive, often costing thousands of dollars because of the high level of precision machining and hand-finishing required to achieve extreme accuracy. Despite their comparative disadvantages, handguns are more easily concealable, and consequentially much more commonly used than rifles. Of 74 principal incidents evaluated in a major study about assassination attempts in the U. In the case of state-sponsored assassination, poisoning can be more easily denied. Georgi Markov , a Bulgarian dissident was assassinated by ricin poisoning.

A tiny pellet containing the poison was injected into his leg through a specially designed umbrella. Widespread allegations involving the Bulgarian government and KGB have not led to any legal results. However, after the fall of the USSR, it was learned that the KGB had developed an umbrella that could inject ricin pellets into a victim, and two former KGB agents who defected said the agency assisted in the murder. In the late s, KGB assassin Bohdan Stashynsky killed Ukrainian nationalist leaders Lev Rebet and Stepan Bandera with a spray gun that fired a jet of poison gas from a crushed cyanide ampule, making their deaths look like heart attacks.

Shortly before his death he issued a statement accusing President of Russia Vladimir Putin of involvement in his assassination. President Putin denies he had any part in Litvinenko's death. Targeted killing is the intentional killing—by a government or its agents—of a civilian or " unlawful combatant " who is not in the government's custody.

The target is a person asserted to be taking part in an armed conflict or terrorism, whether by bearing arms or otherwise, who has thereby lost the immunity from being targeted that he would otherwise have under the Third Geneva Convention. When people call a targeted killing an "assassination," they are attempting to preclude debate on the merits of the action. Assassination is widely defined as murder, and is for that reason prohibited in the United States But killings in self-defense are no more "assassinations" in international affairs than they are murders when undertaken by our police forces against domestic killers.

Targeted killings in self-defense have been authoritatively determined by the federal government to fall outside the assassination prohibition. Author and former U. Army Captain Matthew J. Morgan has argued that "there is a major difference between assassination and targeted killing Associate Professor Eric Patterson and Teresa Casale write: "Perhaps most important is the legal distinction between targeted killing and assassination". On the other hand, the American Civil Liberties Union also states on its website, "A program of targeted killing far from any battlefield, without charge or trial, violates the constitutional guarantee of due process.

It also violates international law, under which lethal force may be used outside armed conflict zones only as a last resort to prevent imminent threats, when non-lethal means are not available. Targeting people who are suspected of terrorism for execution, far from any war zone, turns the whole world into a battlefield.

Clearly, lawbreakers ought to be punished.

Yet, no matter how horrific their deeds, as the targeting of Israeli civilians indeed is, they should be punished according to the law. David's arguments could, in principle, justify the abolition of formal legal systems altogether". Targeted killing has become a frequent tactic of the United States and Israel in their fight against terrorism. Countries such as the U.

Awlaki was killed in a drone strike in September Of those, only 35 were the intended targets. One of the earliest forms of defense against assassins was employing bodyguards. Bodyguards act as a shield for the potential target, keeping lookout for potential attackers sometimes in advance, for example on a parade route , and putting themselves in harm's way—both by simple presence, showing that physical force is available to protect the target, [36] [61] and by shielding the target during any attack.

To neutralize an attacker, bodyguards are typically armed as much as legal and practical concerns permit. Notable examples of bodyguards include the Roman Praetorian Guard or the Ottoman Janissaries —though, in both cases, the protectors sometimes became assassins themselves, exploiting their power to make the head of state a virtual hostage or killing the very leaders they were supposed to protect.

The fidelity of individual bodyguards is an important question as well, especially for leaders who oversee states with strong ethnic or religious divisions. Failure to realize such divided loyalties led to the assassination of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi , assassinated by two Sikh bodyguards in This bodyguard function was often executed by the leader's most loyal warriors, and was extremely effective throughout most of early human history, leading assassins to attempt stealthy means, such as poison which risk was answered by having another person taste the leader's food first.

Another notable measure is the use of a body double , a person who looks like the leader and who pretends to be the leader to draw attention away from the intended target.

With the advent of gunpowder, ranged assassination via bombs or firearms became possible. One of the first reactions was to simply increase the guard, creating what at times might seem a small army trailing every leader; another was to begin clearing large areas whenever a leader was present, to the point where entire sections of a city might be shut down.

As the 20th century dawned, the prevalence and capability of assassins grew quickly, as did measures to protect against them.

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For the first time, armored cars or limousines were put into service for safer transport, with modern versions virtually invulnerable to small arms fire, smaller bombs and mines. Access to famous persons, too, became more and more restricted; [63] potential visitors would be forced through numerous different checks before being granted access to the official in question, and as communication became better and information technology more prevalent, it has become all but impossible for a would-be killer to get close enough to the personage at work or in private life to effect an attempt on his or her life, especially given the common use of metal and bomb detectors.

Most modern assassinations have been committed either during a public performance or during transport, both because of weaker security and security lapses, such as with U. President John F. The methods used for protection by famous people have sometimes evoked negative reactions by the public, with some resenting the separation from their officials or major figures.

Why People Rioted After Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Assassination

One example might be traveling in a car protected by a bubble of clear bulletproof glass , such as the MRAP -like Popemobile of Pope John Paul II , built following an attempt at his life. Start your review of Assassin Affairs - Encore Edition.

This tale centers on a young New York City hit-woman and begins as she seeks vengeance for the torture-murder of her lover. She hooks-up with a collection of great characters, mostly women who are not always what they seem, developing them into a team of female assassin-mercenaries.

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There are no discussion topics on this book yet. About Randall S. Randall S. Many of the prior years of my life were spent working at normal endeavors which had nothing to do with creative writing. Then one night I dreamt I was on a retreat walking through the fall-colored foothills of New England celebrating the publication of my first novel.

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I awoke with a feeling of such fulfillment that I realized it was time to begin my literary journey. I put pen to paper Many of the prior years of my life were spent working at normal endeavors which had nothing to do with creative writing. I put pen to paper and started on my first story About Sam, the tale of a young housewife with children who was also a secret agent.

The opening rough draft included conflict, adventure and romance, but I needed help. I ventured off to a local club called Sarasota Authors Connection. There I met Leah Dallaire, an editor whose continued guidance proved invaluable. Later on my literary journey, I had the pleasure of crossing paths with best-selling author Richard North Patterson who generously provided additional assistance, and I subsequently wrote him in as the bomber pilot in Back to World War II.

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My first stories were an experiment in genres. I dabbled in mystery, fantasy, satire, corporate intrigue, science fiction, romance, thriller, and action-adventure. The one thing they all had in common was strong-willed women, so I consolidated them into a collection called Willful Women, followed later by Willful Women II. The genre experiment revealed that action-adventure was the most fun to create, so I began the Willful Women Assassins Series, later assembling these stories into the novel Assassin Affairs.

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After finishing that project, the characters made an unplanned reappearance in The Diva Den, so I added that as an encore chapter, calling the revision Assassin Affairs — Encore Edition. All my titles are available on the Kindle.